Voaim global binary
Radio Frequency Identification RFID system is a new wireless data transmission and reception technique for automatic identification, asset tracking, security surveillance etc. A RFID system consists of three major components: Realising the fact that the barcode and other means for identifications and asset tracking are inadequate for recent demands, RFID technology has been taking the world of logistics, supply chain managements, asset tracking, security access control, and many other applications areas by storm.
RFID was first proposed by H. Stockman advocates that considerable research and development works need to be done to solve the basic problems of wireless identification by means of reflected power voaim global binary.
RFID is a multi-disciplinary technology which encompasses a variety of disciplines. These include RF and microwave engineering, RF and digital integrated circuits, a big chunk of load bestows on the antenna technology followed by software and voaim global binary engineering for encoding and decoding of analog signals into meaningful codes for identifications and real voaim global binary tracking. Due the flexibility and numerous advantages of RFID systems compared to barcodes and other identification systems, so far, RFID is now becoming a voaim global binary player in mass market.
As a result, significant advancement on RFID technology has been gained within a short period of time. The RFID market has surpassed a few billion dollars mark recently and this growth is exponential with its diversified applications in all sectors like medicine and health care, agriculture, livestock, logistics, and retail chains etc Today, RFID is being researched and investigated by both industry and academic scientists and engineers around the world.
Automatic Identification Auto-ID of items and livestock is required by many areas of government, commerce, science, industry and farming. Recent outbreak of mad voaim global binary disease and ban of imported beef from some countries, have forced Australia to adopt NLIS. These recent enforcement by private and government sectors has pushed RFID technology in the fore-front of development and implementation in almost all sectors of businesses and service industries.
Therefore, it can be concluded that the applications of RFID involve the tracking of livestock, personal identification, area security, road tolling, supply chain management and logistics. Large corporations such as Wall Mart have taken significant steps to automate voaim global binary supply chain management and logistics using Auto-ID -.
Voaim global binary a result, thousands of manufacturers, suppliers and logistic support organizations of Wall-Mart are adopting the RFID technology for their goods, products and services. For any new technology, return of investment IOR is very crucial for any organization.
Being a wireless system, RFID has been going through harsh scrutiny for reliability and security. Though barcodes are printed in voaim global binary and spaces and very cheap to implement, they impose undeniable obstacles in terms of their short range readability and un-automated tracking. These limitations are costing large corporations millions of dollars per annum . The growing tendency today is to replace the voaim global binary with RFID transponders which have unique ID codes in order to identify items.
Hence, the obstacles of reading range and automation would be solved using RFID. Hence, a huge voaim global binary of investments and investigations focusing on lowering the price of the transponder have been put in motion, and the price of the RFID tag is getting lower and lower every year.
The development of chipless transponders without silicon integrated circuits ICs has lowered the cost of the tags even more, but at the expense voaim global binary requiring smarter and agile RFID readers. These features allow easy integration of RFID readers in data networks voaim global binary with standardized data transfer protocols. With versatile applications, range and speed of data communications, the operational frequency and coding techniques voaim global binary by RFID readers are very widely spread - from low frequency LF systems to microwave systems.
This creates a problem in having a ubiquitous RFID system and acceptance of global standards. In Generation 2 tags a unified approach has been formulated to remove the bottleneck and make the tag universal like the barcodes.
To this end RFID readers play significant role voaim global binary reading tags with various voaim global binary and standards. The paper is organized as follows: The growing tendency towards creating a universal reader is presented in Section IV followed by conclusions in Section V. Figure 2 shows the data flow of the RFID system architecture. Therefore, the reader and transponders are in a master-slave relationship where the reader voaim global binary as a master and the transponders as slaves.
Nevertheless RFID readers themselves are in a slave position as well. A software application, also called middleware, processes data from the RFID reader, acts as the master unit and sends commands to the reader. This means that all activities of the reader and transponder are initiated by the application software. In a hierarchical system structure the application software such as enterprise software  represents the master while the reader, as the slave, which is only activated when it receives a command from the application software, and therefore, the reader perform read or write voaim global binary of RFID transponders that are in its interrogation area.
RFID systems can be classified voaim global binary passive and active tag systems . Powered by batteries active tags have on-board signal amplification and modulation facilities.
Therefore, active tags do not rely on the reader as much as passive tags do. As a result, active tags enjoy much superior performances in interrogation and data transmission due to their independence of power supply on a reader.
In a passive tag system, a reader needs to have a powerful radiation field so that the passive RFID transponder can effectively cull sufficient power voaim global binary perform some minor signal processing functions.
These main three components are: Figure 4 shows the block diagram of the reader control section. Also, the control section enables the reader to communicate with the transponders wirelessly by performing modulation, anticollision procedures and decoding the received data from the transponders. This data is usually used to interrogate tags read or to reprogram the tag write.
This section usually consists of a microprocessor, a memory block, a few analog-todigital converters and a communication block for the software application. The high frequency interface of the reader is used for RF signal transmission and reception. HF interfaces are consisted of two separate signal paths to correspond with the two directional data flows from and to the transponder. The local oscillator generates the RF carrier signal, a modulator modulates the signal, the modulated signal is amplified by the power amplifier, and the amplified signal is transmitted through the antenna.
A directional coupler consists of two continuously coupled homogenous wires, and if all ports are matched, the power of the incoming and outgoing signal is divided in the coupler . The HF interface is one of the most complex sections of the reader. Most HF interfaces are protected from EM interference using metal cages. Different demodulation techniques are used when decoding the data received from the transponder. The reader transmits a CW signal at voaim global binary.
Therefore, the transmit section needs not to be connected with the control section as shown in Fig.
The radiation intensity of the reader antenna determines the interrogation range and zone. Antennas are spatial filters. Adaptive antennas are a promising technique for implementing this spatial diversity into Voaim global binary readers. Article  reports an adaptive antenna for RFID reader. This antenna is a 5-element rectangular patch antenna array with an intelligent beam forming network at 2.
A number of different reader antennas have been developed during the years based on voaim global binary patch antennas -, . Following is a detailed discussion on various Voaim global binary reader systems available in the open literatures.
The classification is done after an analysis and synthesis of a comprehensive literature review on RFID readers. The classification is based on the voaim global binary supply, communication interface, mobility, tag interrogation, frequency response, and the supporting protocols of the reader. The classification of the RFID reader based on their power supply brings forth two types of readers:.
Readers supplied by the power network generally use a power cord connected to an appropriate external electrical outlet. Because RFID readers are voaim global binary devices, they need DC voltage supply for their electronic circuits and components. Most readers that use this type of power supply are fixed stationary readers and their operating power supply ranges from 5VV , but there are examples of readers that operate at voltage levels as high as 24 V .
Courtesy of Alien Technology Corporation, Battery powered BP readers voaim global binary light in weight and portable. The battery is mainly used to power voaim global binary the motherboard of the reader. Most BP readers are handheld, but there are stationary readers that are battery assisted as voaim global binary.
BP readers use from 5V up to 12V batteries for their power supply -. RFID readers can be classified on the basis of the interface that a reader provides for communication. Based on this communication interface, readers can be classified as:.
Serial readers use a serial communication link to communicate with their host computers or software applications. Serial readers have the advantage of being more reliable for data transmission than network readers.
The disadvantage of serial readers is that they are limited by the number of serial ports at the host side. It might be needed to have a large number of host computers to connect all of the serial readers.
Another problem is data transfer rate which is lower than network data transmission rate. Network readers are connected to the host computer via a wired or wireless network Fig. These types of readers behave like a standard network device and do not require particular knowledge of the hardware and system configuration. This allows easier tracking and maintenance of the readers installed in the system. For example, if the readers implemented in the network need updating or voaim global binary firmware and drivers are being reinstalled with a new driver version, this is easy to perform just by selecting the voaim global binary from the host computer using the network connections window.
This also provides a smaller number of hosts voaim global binary installing a large number of readers in comparison with serial readers. The data transmission rate of network readers is far greater than that with serial readers up to 10Mbps for Ethernet and thus data is collected at a higher rate. The disadvantage of network readers is that the communication link is not as reliable as serial communication. When the voaim global binary link goes down, the back end cannot be accessed.
As a result, the RFID system might come to a complete standstill. RFID readers have internal memory to store received data from the tags, so short time network failures may be compensated. The next classification of RFID readers can be made on their mobility. Hence, we distinguish two types of readers:. Stationary RFID readers are also known as fixed readers.
Fixed RFID readers are voaim global binary used for wireless data capture in supply chain management, asset tracking and product control . Most stationary readers support multiple protocols for transponder reader communication and can operate in standalone and in networking mode. They use power supply from 12V DC up to 24V, weigh from 1.
Handheld RFID readers are mobile readers that can be carried and operated by users as handheld voaim global binary.
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