Option meaning in hausa
The vocabulary contains meaning-word pairs "entries" corresponding to core LWT meanings option meaning in hausa the recipient language Hausa. The option meaning in hausa text chapter was published in the book Loanwords in the World's Languages.
The language page Hausa contains a list of all loanwords arranged by donor languoid. The database contains the closest equivalents of LWT meanings in Hausa also in terms of general usage as judged by the near-to-native speaker competence of one of the investigators Ari Awagana. Dictionaries such as BargeryNewman and Awdehave been consulted for specific words, i.
This is particularly the case with some loans from Arabic which, however, can be assumed to be known by Hausa speakers who have been through the widespread early-childhood Quranic education. As regards transcription of Hausa words, we are not following the official orthography which marks neither tone nor vowel length. Note that we, therefore, disallow tonally unmarked syllables which, however, would reflect a widely used convention for indicating a High tone syllable in Hausa.
A meaning is entered in this field only if there is a significant difference between the LWT meaning and the Hausa equivalent, or to explain shades of meaning in case of multiple equivalents of LWT meaning. The following criteria have been applied in terms of describing the analyzability of a word form in Hausa. Applies to cases in which at least one of the analyzable parts of the word form has taken on a specialized grammaticalized functional meaning, or the word form does not correspond to the formation pattern s found elsewhere in the grammar.
This can be illustrated by the following examples: In terms of our rather tentative guesses on the age of loans, we use the following chronological approximations: The database includes four levels of borrowing certainty, based at times on rather tentative judgements.
We have also applied this judgment to words which strongly resemble option meaning in hausa in probable contact languages, even though their onomatopoetic features could point into the direction of rather universal distribution cf.
In other cases, borrowing is a likely hypothesis, if we are not dealing with chance resemblance, cf. We have further applied this judgement to words which are present in likely contact languages but where we option meaning in hausa not sure about the direction of the borrowing. Insofar, even this rather strong judgment remains rather tentative in the light of the rather poor quality and quantity of available data and the almost complete absence of systematic comparative historical linguistic work in the wider area in which Hausa is spoken.
Certain lexical expressions in Hausa are created by combining Hausa elements with a loan, e. Studia Chadica et Hamito-Semitica. Herausgegeben von Option meaning in hausa Ibriszimow und Rudolf Leger, pp. Hausa and Nilo-Saharan loanwords. Langues et Contacts en Zone Sahelo-Saharienne: Istituto Universitario Orientale, Napoli. Ancient and New Arabic Loans in Chadic.
Arabic Loan-Words In Hausa. Linguistic Evidence for the Influence of option meaning in hausa Kanuri on the Hausa. Journal of African History, 1, 2 p. Ancient Benue-Congo loans in Chadic. Jungraithmayr Herrmann and Dymitr Ibriszimow. Tentative Reconstruction, Grading, Distribution and Comments. Dietrich Reimer Jungraithmayr, Herrmann. Vocabulaire fondamental et anciens emprunts. Le milieu et les hommes: Berber loans in Hausa.
Materials for a Reconstruction. Loans in Hausa and Pre-Hausa: Deutscher Orientalistentag, Berlin Edited by J M. Insertion was the option chosen for cases where there is good reason to believe that the concept was introduced together with the word for it. Coexistence was chosen as the option when option meaning in hausa was known that when the loanword entered language, another word borrowed or not had already existed in the language with the same meaning, particularly when this word is still in use.
Environmental salience W20 Very little option meaning in hausa is available regarding the presence or absence of certain concepts and entities before contact, especially when the contact was very early. Sometimes we use abbreviations in the database: Home Vocabularies Meanings Languages Authors. Vocabulary Hausa by Ari Awagana and H.
Field descriptions Form The database contains the closest equivalents of LWT meanings in Hausa also in terms of general usage as judged by the near-to-native speaker competence of one option meaning in hausa the investigators Ari Awagana. Applies to simple monomorphemic words. This option meaning in hausa is used for documenting relatable word forms in probable contact languages, including proto-forms in cases where such have option meaning in hausa reconstructed, e.