Global System for Mobile Communications GSM services are a standard iq postpaid-option of applications and features available to mobile phone subscribers all over the world. The GSM standards are defined by the 3GPP collaboration and implemented in hardware and software by equipment manufacturers and mobile phone operators.
The common standard makes it possible to use the same phones with different companies' services, or even roam into different countries. GSM is the world's most dominant mobile phone standard. After subscribers sign iq postpaid-option, information about their identity telephone number and what iq postpaid-option they are allowed to access are stored in a "SIM record" in the Iq postpaid-option Location Register HLR.
If a mast can be successfully contacted, then there is said to be coverage in the area. The phone then identifies itself to the network through the control channel.
Once this is successfully completed, the phone is said to be attached to the network. The key feature of iq postpaid-option mobile phone is the ability to receive and make calls in any area where coverage iq postpaid-option available. This is generally called roaming from iq postpaid-option customer perspective, but also called visiting when describing the underlying technical process.
Each geographic area has a database called the Visitor Location Register VLRwhich contains details of all the mobiles currently in that area. Whenever a phone attaches, or visits, a new area, the Visitor Location Register must contact the Home Iq postpaid-option Register to obtain the details for that phone. The current cellular location of the phone i. Every SIM card contains a secret key, called the Ki, which is used to provide authentication and encryption services. This is useful to prevent theft of service, and also to prevent "over the air" snooping of a user's activity.
The network does this by utilising the Authentication Center and is accomplished without transmitting the key directly. When a phone contacts the network, its IMEI may be checked against the Equipment Identity Register to locate stolen iq postpaid-option and facilitate monitoring.
Once a mobile phone has successfully attached to a GSM network as described above, calls may be made from the phone to any other phone on the global Public Switched Telephone Network. The user dials the telephone numberpresses the send or talk key, and the mobile phone sends a call setup request message iq postpaid-option the mobile phone network via the nearest mobile phone base transceiver station BTS.
Iq postpaid-option call setup request message is handled next by the Mobile Iq postpaid-option Centerwhich checks the subscriber's record held in the Visitor Location Register to see if the outgoing call is allowed. If so, the MSC then routes the call in the same way that a telephone exchange does in a fixed network.
If not, the call is rejected. If the call iq postpaid-option allowed to continue, then it is continually monitored and the appropriate amount is decremented from the subscriber's account. When the credit reaches zero, the call is cut off by iq postpaid-option network.
The systems that monitor and provide the prepaid services are not part of the GSM standard services, but instead an example of intelligent network services that a mobile phone operator may decide to implement in addition to the standard GSM ones. When someone places a call iq postpaid-option a mobile phonethey dial the telephone number also called a MSISDN associated with the phone user and the call is routed to the mobile phone iq postpaid-option 's Gateway Mobile Switching Centre.
The Gateway MSCas the name suggests, acts as the "entrance" from exterior portions of the Public Switched Telephone Network onto the provider's network. As noted above, the phone is free to roam anywhere in the operator's network or on the networks of roaming partners, including in other countries.
So the first job of the Gateway MSC is iq postpaid-option determine the current location of the mobile phone in order to connect the call.
When the HLR receives this query message, it determines whether the call should be routed to another number called a divertor if it is to be routed directly to the mobile. The MSC pages all the mobile phone masts in the area that the IMSI is registered in order to inform the phone that there is an incoming call for it.
If the subscriber answers, a speech path is created through the Visiting MSC and Gateway MSC back to iq postpaid-option network iq postpaid-option the person making the call, and a normal telephone call follows. It is also possible that the phone call is iq postpaid-option answered.
Once again, the operator may decide to set this value by default to the voice mail of the mobile so that callers can leave a message. A roaming user may want to avoid these forwarding services in the visited network as roaming iq postpaid-option will apply.
In the United States and Canada, callers pay the cost of connecting to the Gateway Iq postpaid-option of the subscriber's phone company, regardless of the actual location of the phone.
As mobile numbers are given standard geographic numbers according to the North American Numbering Plancallers pay iq postpaid-option same to reach fixed phones and mobile phones in a given geographic area.
Mobile subscribers pay for the connection time typically using in-plan or prepaid minutes for both incoming and iq postpaid-option calls. Incoming calls are free to the mobile subscriber with the exception of receiving a call iq postpaid-option the subscriber is roaming as described below.
However, callers typically pay a higher rate when calling mobile phones. Special prefixes are used to designate mobile numbers so that callers are aware they are calling a mobile phone and therefore will be charged a higher rate.
From the caller's point of view, it does not matter where the mobile subscriber is, as the technical process of connecting the call is the same. If a subscriber is roaming on a different company's network, the subscriber, instead of the caller, may pay a surcharge for the connection time.
International roaming calls are often quite expensive, and as a result some companies require subscribers to grant explicit permission to receive calls while roaming to certain countries.
When a subscriber is roaming internationally and a call is forwarded to his or her voice mail, such as when his or her phone is off, busy, or not answered, he or she may actually be charged for two simultaneous international phone calls—the first to get iq postpaid-option the Iq postpaid-option to the VMSC and the second to get from the VMSC iq postpaid-option the Call Forward Busy or Call Forward No Reply number typically the voice mailbox in the subscriber's country.
However, some networks' GMSCs connect unanswered calls directly, keeping the voice signal entirely within the home country and thus avoiding the double charge. During a GSM call, speech is converted from analogue sound iq postpaid-option to digital data by the phone itself, and transmitted through the mobile phone network by digital means. Though older parts of the fixed Public Switched Telephone Network iq postpaid-option use analog transmission. The digital algorithm used to encode speech iq postpaid-option is called a codec.
All codecs except AMR operate with a fixed data rate and error correction level. The GSM standard also provides separate facilities for transmitting digital data. This allows a mobile phone to act like any other computer on the Internetsending and receiving data via the Internet Protocol. The mobile may also be connected to a desktop computer, laptopor PDAfor use as a network interface just like a modem or Ethernet card, but using one of the GSM data protocols described below instead of a PSTN-compatible audio channel or an Ethernet link to transmit data.
The AT commands can control anything from ring tones iq postpaid-option data compression algorithms.
In addition to general Internet access, other special services may be provided by the mobile phone operatorsuch as SMS. A circuit-switched data connection reserves a certain amount of bandwidth between two points for the life of a connection, just as a traditional phone call allocates an audio channel of a certain quality between two phones for the duration of the call.
Two circuit-switched data protocols are defined in the GSM standard: These types of connections are typically charged on a per-second basis, regardless of the amount of data sent over the link. This is because iq postpaid-option certain amount of bandwidth is dedicated to the connection regardless of whether iq postpaid-option not it is needed. Circuit-switched connections do have the advantage of providing a constant, guaranteed quality of servicewhich is useful for real-time applications like video conferencing.
It is iq postpaid-option with systems that use pre versions of the standard. GPRS does this by sending packets to the local mobile phone iq postpaid-option BTS on channels not being used by circuit-switched voice calls or data connections. Multiple Iq postpaid-option users can share a single unused channel because each of them uses it only for occasional short bursts.
The advantage of packet-switched connections is that bandwidth is only used when there is actually data to transmit. This type of connection is thus generally billed by the kilobyte instead of by the second, and is usually a cheaper alternative for applications that only need to send and receive data sporadically, like instant messaging. GPRS is usually described as a 2. Iq postpaid-option text messages may be sent by mobile phone users to other mobile users or external services that accept SMS.
See also GSM codes for supplementary services. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to iq postpaid-option confused with GSM.
This article includes a list of referencesbut its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. April Learn how and when to remove this template message. General Packet Radio Service. Simplifying Wireless Data Pricing". Retrieved 23 September Pay as you Trading in oil futures and options by sally clubleys. Archived from the original on 7 January Retrieved 27 December You also receive balance iq postpaid-option at the end of each phone call as well as after sending and receiving messages.
This message will be played on your first outgoing call of the day until you add more airtime or for the last 5 days iq postpaid-option service.
Archived from the original on 11 April Your balance is also automatically displayed on your handset briefly after every chargeable call you make or message you send.
The message announces the per-minute call cost and the customer's account balance. Development Distribution Management Cloud computing. Banking Marketing advertising campaigns Payments contactless donating Ticketing. Iq postpaid-option Flip Phablet Slider Smartwatch. Carrier IQ Use restrictions while driving Legality of recording by civilians Photography and iq postpaid-option law Telephone tapping Texting while driving Mobile phones in prison.
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