Editing binary filesedit
These commands are used to start editing a single file. This means that the file is read into the buffer and the current file name is set. The file that is opened depends on the current directory, see: See read-messages for an explanation of the message that is given after the file has been read. You can use the ": Note for systems other than Unix: When using a command that accepts a single file name like ": This is useful on systems that regularly embed spaces in file names like MS-Windows and the Amiga.
When using a command that accepts more than one file name like ": Which wildcards are supported depends on the system.
These are the common ones: This allows searching a directory tree. This goes up to directories deep. Note there are some commands where this works slightly differently, see file-searching. They are not used for directories further down in the tree. To see what shell command Vim is running, set the 'verbose' option to 4. When the shell command returns a non-zero exit code, an error message will be displayed and the Vim command will be aborted.
To avoid this make the shell always return zero like so: The backslash before the shell pipe symbol " " prevents Vim from parsing it as command termination. This also works for most other systems, with the restriction that the backticks must be around the whole item. It is not possible to have text directly before the first or just after the last backtick.
However, 'wildignore' does apply like to other wildcards. Environment variables in the expression are expanded when evaluating the expression, thus this works: When the result is a List then each item is used as a name.
Line breaks also separate names. Note that such expressions are only supported in places where a filename is expected as an argument to an Ex-command. It can be any valid value for these options. It can be one of three things: Note that this may result in illegal bytes in your text! Replace each bad character with a question mark.
In some places an inverted question mark is used 0xBF. Note that when reading, the 'fileformat' and 'fileencoding' options will be set to the used format.
When writing this doesn't happen, thus a next write will use the old value of the option. Same for the 'binary' option. Double the number of backslashes. It is obsolete now. You can read a file in DOS format and write it in Unix format. If the 'fileformat' option is set to " dos " on non-MS-DOS systems the message "[dos format]" is shown to remind you that something unusual is happening. On all systems but the Macintosh you get the message "[mac format]" if 'fileformat' is set to " mac ".
If the new file does not exist, the 'fileformat' of the current buffer is used when 'fileformats' is empty. Otherwise the first format from 'fileformats' is used for the new file. Before editing binary, executable or Vim script files you should set the 'binary' option.
A simple way to do this is by starting Vim with the " -b " option. This will avoid the use of 'fileformat'. You can encrypt files that are written by setting the 'key' option. This provides some security against others reading your files. The argument list argument-list arglist If you give more than one file name when starting Vim, this list is remembered as the argument list. You can jump to each file in this list.
Do not confuse this with the buffer list, which you can see with the: The argument list was already present in Vi, the buffer list is new in Vim. Every file name in the argument list will also be present in the buffer list unless it was deleted with: But it's common that names in the buffer list are not in the argument list. This subject is introduced in section There is one global argument list, which is used for all windows by default.
It is possible to create a new argument list local to a window, see: You can use the argument list with the following commands, and with the expression functions argc and argv. These all work on the argument list of the current window. This fails when changes have been made and Vim does not want to abandon the current buffer. This is like using: No check for duplicates is done. Otherwise they are added after the [count] 'th file.
If the argument list is " a b c " , and " b " is the current argument, then these commands result in: The currently edited file is not changed. This command keeps the currently edited file, also when it's deleted from the argument list. When the last number in the range is too high, up to the last argument is deleted.
When [count] is omitted the current entry is used. N E Edit [count] previous file in argument list. Discard any changes to the buffer. For some commands it is possible to use two counts. The last one rightmost one is used.
If 'startofline' is set, the cursor will be positioned at the first non-blank in the line, otherwise the last know column is used. If there is no last known cursor position the cursor will be in the first line the last line in Ex mode. From within Vim the command ": White space is used to separate file names. Put a backslash before a space or tab to include it in a file name. You will see something like file 4 of 11 If 'shortmess' contains 'f' it will be 4 of 11 If you are not really editing the file at the current position in the argument list it will be file 4 of 11 This means that you are position 4 in the argument list, but not editing the fourth file in the argument list.
This happens when you do ": Doesn't start editing another file. Define a new global argument list like: All windows using the global argument list will see this new list.
There can be several argument lists. They can be shared between windows. When they are shared, changing the argument list in one window will also change it in the other window. When a window is split the new window inherits the argument list from the current window. The two windows then share this list, until one of them uses: It works like doing this: When the current file can't be abandon ed and the [! When an error is detected on one file, further files in the argument list will not be visited.
The last file in the argument list or where an error occurred becomes the current file. While this command is executing, the Syntax autocommand event is disabled by adding it to 'eventignore'. This considerably speeds up editing each file. The " e " flag is used for the ": Writing writing save-file Note: When the 'write' option is off, you are not able to write any file. This is the normal way to save changes to a file.
It fails when the 'readonly' option is set or when there is another reason why the file can't be written. This may change the permission and ownership of the file and break symbolic links.
Add the 'W' flag to 'cpoptions' to avoid this. This is unusual, because the file will not contain all lines in the buffer. Overwrite an existing file. The default [range] for the ": If you write the whole buffer, it is no longer considered changed. When you write it to a different file with ": When included, the write command will reset the 'modified' flag, even though the buffer itself may still be different from its file.
If a file name is given with ": This can be used, for example, when the write fails and you want to try again later with ": This can be switched off by removing the 'A' flag from the 'cpoptions' option.
Note that the 'fsync' option matters here. If it's set it may make writes slower but safer. The previous name is used for the alternate file name. When 'filetype' is empty filetype detection is done with the new name, before the file is written.
When the write was successful 'readonly' is reset. Buffers without a file name cause an error message. Buffers which are readonly are not written. Write all changed buffers, even the ones that are readonly.
Buffers without a file name are not written and cause an error message. The file is either copied or renamed see 'backupcopy'. After the file has been successfully written and when the 'writebackup' option is on and the 'backup' option is off, the backup file is deleted. When the 'patchmode' option is on the backup file may be renamed.
The values of 'backup' and 'writebackup' are ignored then. When the 'backup' option is on, an old backup file with the same name as the new backup file will be deleted. If 'backup' is not set, but 'writebackup' is set, an existing backup file will not be deleted. The backup file that is made while the file is being written will have a different name. On some filesystems it's possible that in a crash you lose both the backup and the newly written file it might be there but contain bogus data.
In that case try recovery, because the swap file is synced to disk and might still be there. Whether the backup is a new file, which is a copy of the original file, or the original file renamed depends on the 'backupcopy' option. See there for an explanation of when the copy is made and when the file is renamed. If the creation of a backup file fails, the write is not done. If you want to write anyway add a '! For unix the mask is with additionally umask applied. When writing a file that was read Vim will preserve the permissions, but clear the s-bit.
When 'W' is not present, ": If there is no backup file and writing the new file failed, you have already lost the original file! If a backup was made, it is put back in place of the original file if possible.
If you exit Vim, and lose the changes you made, the original file will mostly still be there. If putting back the original file fails, there will be an error message telling you that you lost the original file.
On non-Mac systems the message "[mac format]" is shown. See also file-formats and the 'fileformat' and 'fileformats' options. It is an advanced way to control access rights for a file. It is used on new MS-Windows and Unix systems, but only when the filesystem supports it. Vim attempts to preserve the ACL info when writing a file. September Learn how and when to remove this template message.
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As well as being able to export functions and values in a module, the export directory can forward an export to another library.
This allows more flexibility when re-organising libraries: If so, an export can be forwarded to that library, instead of messy reorganising inside the original module.
Forwarding is achieved by making an RVA in the AddressOfFunctions array point into the section which contains the export directory, something that normal exports should not do. ExportName" for the appropriate place to forward this export to. The other half of dynamic linking is importing functions and values into an executable or other module.
Before runtime, compilers and linkers do not know where in memory a value that needs to be imported could exist. The import table solves this by creating an array of pointers at runtime, each one pointing to the memory location of an imported value. This array of pointers exists inside of the module at a defined RVA location. In this way, the linker can use addresses inside of the module to access values outside of it.
Each of these identify a library or module that has a value we need to import. The array continues until an entry where all the values are zero. The structure is as follows:. The TimeDateStamp is relevant to the act of "Binding", see below. ForwarderChain will be explained later. The arrays are terminated with an entry that is equal to zero. These two arrays are parallel and point to the same structure, in the same order. The reason for this will become apparent shortly.
This is used when looking up a value in the export directory see above through the AddressOfNames array. The "Hint" value is an index into the AddressOfNames array; to save searching for a string, the loader first checks the AddressOfNames entry corresponding to "Hint". These descriptors identify a library to import things from. Using the above import directory at runtime, the loader finds the appropriate modules, loads them into memory, and seeks the correct export.
However, to be able to use the export, a pointer to it must be stored somewhere in the importing module's memory. Once an imported value has been resolved, the pointer to it is stored in the FirstThunk array. It can then be used at runtime to address imported values.
The PE file format also supports a peculiar feature known as "binding". The process of loading and resolving import addresses can be time consuming, and in some situations this is to be avoided. If a developer is fairly certain that a library is not going to be updated or changed, then the addresses in memory of imported values will not change each time the application is loaded.
So, the import address can be precomputed and stored in the FirstThunk array before runtime, allowing the loader to skip resolving the imports - the imports are "bound" to a particular memory location. However, if the versions numbers between modules do not match, or the imported library needs to be relocated, the loader will assume the bound addresses are invalid, and resolve the imports anyway. The "TimeDateStamp" member of the import directory entry for a module controls binding; if it is set to zero, then the import directory is not bound.
If it is non-zero, then it is bound to another module. However, the TimeDateStamp in the import table must match the TimeDateStamp in the bound module's FileHeader, otherwise the bound values will be discarded by the loader. In these cases, the non-forwarded imports can be bound, but the values which get forwarded must be identified so the loader can resolve them. This is done through the ForwarderChain member of the import descriptor.
This continues until the FirstThunk value is -1, indicating no more forwarded values to import. Resources are data items in modules which are difficult to be stored or described using the chosen programming language. This requires a separate compiler or resource builder, allowing insertion of dialog boxes, icons, menus, images, and other types of resources, including arbitrary binary data.
The first thing we need to do when we want to manually manipulate a file's resources is to find the resource section. To do this we need some information found in the DataDirectory array and the Section Table. The PointerToRawData member contains an offset from the beginning of the file that will lead you to the first byte of the resource section.
You can also see that the value of PointerToRawData is equal to In this particular PE file we will find the resource section starting at offset from the beginning of the file.
Once the resource section is found we can start looking at the structures and data contained in that section. Characteristics is unused, and TimeDateStamp is normally the time of creation, although it doesn't matter if it's set or not. MajorVersion and MinorVersion relate to the versioning info of the resources: The actual shape of the resource entry structure is as follows:.
The NameId value has dual purpose: Alternatly, if the top bit is set, then the lower 31 bits make up an offset from the start of the resource data to the name string of this particular resource. The Data value also has a dual purpose: Otherwise, this is a leaf node, and Data contains the offset from the start of the resource data to a structure which describes the specifics of the resource data itself which can be considered to be an ordered stream of bytes:. The Data value contains an RVA to the actual resource data, Size is self-explanatory, and CodePage contains the Unicode codepage to be used for decoding Unicode-encoded strings in the resource if any.